The bonding of a nonwoven can occur through thermal, chemical or mechanical means – and often with the aid of felting needles.
With the mechanical bonding method, fibers are transported by means of barbed felting needles to form the nonwoven. The increased friction and entanglement between the fibers, ultimately bonds the nonwoven. The needleboard of a needling machine contains a high density of needles. An up and down movement guides the needles through the nonwoven. Groz-Beckert provides a wide range of felting and structuring needles to meet different performance requirements.
A further method of mechanical bonding of nonwovens is hydroentanglement, also known as the spunlace technique.
With this technology, water within a wide range of pressures, is focused through very precisely manufactured jets, creating a continuous curtain of water. The force of the waterjets mechanically 'anchors' the fibers in the product. The tools used for this method are jet strips, in various specifications. All Groz-Beckert products for hydroentanglement are marketed under the brand name of HyTec®.